In the next few months, India is set to overtake China as the world’s most populous country. With 70% of its people under the age of 64, India is in a prime position to expand its workforce and economic output — and solidify its place as a global economic juggernaut. By contrast, China’s population shrank last year for the first time since the 1960s. The growing elderly demographic is causing massive concerns about Beijing’s growth prospects, forcing the Chinese Communist Party to scrap its one-child policy in recent years. We compare the two countries' population sizes since 1960 and forecasts for the next few decades.