Venezuela: The Humpty Dumpty Problem

Venezuela is one of the most broken countries on Earth today. At the moment, two men claim to be president, and millions of people have fled amid one of the largest peacetime economic collapses in history.

So here's a question: assuming that the political crisis could be resolved – a big assumption, but work with us – what would it take to put the economy of Venezuela, once Latin America's wealthiest, back together again?


Here's Gabe with a look at three big issues that would immediately need to be addressed:

Stemming hyperinflation: Venezuela's inflation rate is expected to reach 10 million percent by the end of the year. The Venezuelan bolivar is now worth less than the paper it's printed on because of the government's ill-advised policy of printing money to stave off economic collapse. Since no one wants to produce goods for worthless money – let alone goods subject to price controls – the result has been widespread scarcity and mass hunger that's seen the average Venezuelan lose 24 pounds in recent years. The most immediate task will be to address this devastating currency collapse.

Humanitarian relief: Venezuela is in dire need of aid beyond just food. The country's healthcare system has essentially imploded. Around 13,000 doctors have fled in the past four years, and there's currently an 85 percent shortage of medicines. AIDS-related deaths have tripled in recent years, according tothe FT. Diseases thought to be all but eradicated – like yellow fever, diphtheria, and tuberculosis – are resurgent. The US has sent food and humanitarian aid to Venezuela via Colombia, but it's currently being blocked by the Maduro regime.

Rebooting the economy: Rebuilding Venezuela's economy more broadly will cost an estimated $60 - 80 billion over several years, according to Harvard economist Ricardo Hausmann. The first task for any new government would be to stabilize oil production, a crucial source of government revenue that has fallen to historic lows. It would then face the thorny task of settling massive debts with foreign investors and governments, estimated to total around $140 billion. Lastly, the government needs to woo back the many talented workers who are among the 3 million people who've fled the country since 2015.

The bottom line: Plenty of countries have confronted economic collapses, humanitarian catastrophes, or political crises. But Venezuela is one of the few to face all three of these challenges at once, making recovery that much more difficult.

Technology has played a big role in accelerating globalization. While it's our business to advance technology, we also believe that technology should respect and even help protect the world's timeless values. That conviction has led us to announce a new and fourth pillar to Microsoft's AI for Good portfolio – our $125 million, five-year commitment to use artificial intelligence to tackle some of society's biggest challenges. This new pillar will focus on AI for Cultural Heritage. Read more at Microsoft On The Issues.

China is poised to roll out a nationwide social credit scoring system by next year. What grade would you get?

"The Iranian people want to be South Korea, not North Korea" - Karim Sadjadpour sits down with Ian Bremmer.

This Saturday, July 20, will mark the 50-year anniversary of the day a human being first stepped onto another world. A moment born out of Cold War political pressures, it's easy to forget a half century later how much bitter controversy the project provoked at home and the intensity of the worldwide fanfare that followed its success.

The moon mission's primary purpose was to defeat the Soviet Union. By the time John Kennedy became president in 1961, the Soviet Union had advanced far ahead of the United States in the race for achievement in space. In October 1957, the Soviets launched Sputnik, the world's first satellite. A month later, a dog named Laika became the first living creature to travel beyond Earth's atmosphere. In April 1961, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin orbited the Earth, the first human to do so.

In early May, Alan Shepard became the first American in space, spurring Kennedy to announce a far more ambitious plan. On May 25, Kennedy famously pledged that by the end of the decade Americans would go to the moon and return safely to the Earth.

Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963, but new President Lyndon Johnson quickly signaled his intention to see the promise kept. The Soviets held their space lead through 1965, by landing an unmanned craft on the Moon.

The moon mission stoked controversy in the United States. A review of polls reveals that only in 1969 did a majority of Americans support the project. Many people argued that the billions spent on a moonshot should go toward the war in Vietnam or to fight poverty in America's inner cities. "No hot water, no toilets, no lights. But Whitey's on the moon," sang musician and activist Gil Scott Heron. It didn't help when a fire during the Apollo 1 mission killed three astronauts and destroyed their space module.

But when Neil Armstrong became the first person to step onto the moon on July 20, 1969, the event took on a life of its own. It was a decade framed by two images of respected TV anchorman Walter Cronkite—shaken to the core on air by the 1963 murder of President Kennedy and then speechless with awe as Americans bounded across the surface of the moon.

A decade that included confrontation with the Soviets in Cuba, the assassinations of John Kennedy, Malcolm X, Martin Luther King, and Robert Kennedy, a failing war in Vietnam, race riots in American cities, and violent chaos at the 1968 Democratic Party convention ended with an accomplishment a quarter million miles away, that was watched live by 94 percent of Americans who owned a TV.

Americans weren't the only ones watching. About 650 million people around the world watched the moon landing live on TV, making the event the first truly global televised event. Nine weeks later, astronauts Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins began a world tour.

Concerns that planting an American flag on the moon's surface would seem an act of obnoxious nationalism faded as the three men were greeted by overflow crowds in 27 cities in 24 countries over 39 days. An estimated one million people greeted them in Dhaka (then Pakistan) and some 1.5 million turned out in Mumbai (then Bombay).

Fifty years later, moon missions are still a mark of national prestige. Russia, China, India, the EU, Japan, and Israel have all sent probes to orbit the Moon or landed vehicles on its surface. But none of them matches that first "giant leap for mankind."

Next up: Mars? For thoughts on the next space race, click here.

Bonus fact: An iPhone has more than 100,000 times the processing power of the computer that landed Apollo 11 on the moon.